Elliptical and Torispherical Heads Subjected to External Pressure
The knuckles of elliptical and torispherical heads under external pressure are in tension. The critical region of these heads with regard to buckling under external pressure is the central crown, which is a spherical segment. The critical stress for buckling of the crown is essentially the same as approximated by the equation for a sphere (Section 162) using the crown radius of the head.
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