Category: Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchanger Types

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Heat Exchanger Types

The figure above shows different arrangements of the shells, tubes and baffles in heat exchangers according to TEMA standard classifications. The first letter of the standards designates the heat exchanger front end while the second letter designates the shell type or the heat exchanger middle section and the third letter designates the heat exchanger rear […]

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Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Selections

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There are three basic types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers: fixed tube sheet, floating head, and U-tube. The list below summarizes the comparison between these three exchangers. Fixed Tube Heat Exchanger Advantages 1. Low cost 2. Fewer gaskets. 3. Individual tubes are replaceable. Disadvantages 1. The shell can not be clean or inspect. 2. Limited temperature […]

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TEMA Glasses and Tube Materials

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TEMA Glasses and Tube Materials

TEMA standards provide for two classes of shell and tube exchanger qualities. Class C is the less  stringent and is typically used in onshore applications and where the temperature is above ~20°F. Class R is normally used offshore and in cold temperature service. Table 3-2 shows the most important differences between a Class R and […]

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Heat Exchanger Placement of Fluid

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The question always comes up of which fluid to put in the tubes and which fluid to put in the shell. Consider placing a fluid through the tubes when: 1. Special alloy materials are required for corrosion control and high temperatures. 2. Fluid is at high pressures. 3. Fluid contains vapors and non-condensable gases. 4. […]

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Heat Exchangers Classification

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In addition to the type description code there is also a shorthand that is used for classifying heat exchangers. The first element of the shorthand is the nominal diameter, which is the inside diameter of the shell in inches, rounded off to the nearest integer. For kettle reboilers and chillers (remember the kettle has a […]

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Heat Exchanger Tube Pitch

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Heat Exchanger Tube Pitch

Tube holes cannot be drilled very close together, since this may structually weaken the tube sheet. The shortest distance between two adjacent tube holes is called the “clearance.” Tubes are laid out in either square or triangular patterns as shown in Figure 3-5. The advantage of square pitch is that the tubes are accessible for […]

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Heat Exchanger Tubes

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Heat Exchanger Tubes

Heat-exchanger tubes should not be confused with steel pipe or other types of pipe that are extruded to steel pipe sizes. The outside diameter of heat-exchanger tubes is the actual outside diameter in inches within a very strict tolerance. Heat-exchanger tubes are available in a variety of metals including steel, copper, brass, 70-30 copper-nickel, aluminum […]

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Heat Exchanger Baffles

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Heat Exchanger Baffles

Shell-and-tube exchangers contain several types of baffles to help direct the flow of both tube-side and shell-side fluids. Pass partition baffles force the fluid to flow through several groups of parallel tubes. Each of these groups of tubes is called a “pass,” since it passes the fluid from one head to another. By adding pass […]

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Shell and Tube Exchangers

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Shell and Tube Exchangers

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are cylindrical in shape, consisting of a bundle of parallel tubes surrounded by an outer casing (shell). Both the tube bundle and the shell are designed as pressure containing elements in accordance with the pressure and temperature requirements of the fluids that flow through each of them. The tube-side fluid is isolated […]

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