Two Phase Vertical Separators Sizing

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Two Phase Vertical Separators Sizing

In vertical separators, a minimum diameter must be maintained to allow liquid drops to separate from the vertically moving gas. The liquid retention time requirement specifies a combination of diameter and liquid volume height. Any diameter greater than the minimum required for gas capacity can be chosen. Figure 4-15 shows the model used for a […]

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Two Phase Horizontal Separators Sizing

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Two Phase Horizontal Separators Sizing

For sizing a horizontal separator it is necessary to choose a seam-toseam  vessel length and a diameter. This choice must satisfy the conditions  for gas capacity that allow the liquid drops to fall from the gas to the liquid volume as the gas traverses the effective length of the vessel. It must also  provide sufficient […]

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Two Phase Separator Re-entrainment

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Re-entrainment is a phenomenon caused by high gas velocity at the gas-liquid interface of a separator. Momentum transfer from the gas to the liquid causes waves and ripples in the liquid, and then droplets are broken away from the liquid phase. The general rule of thumb that calls for limiting the slenderness ratio to a […]

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Two Phase Separator Drop Size

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The purpose of the gas separation section of the vessel is to condition the gas for final polishing by the mist extractor. From field experience it appears that if 100-micron drops are removed in this section, the mist extractor will not become flooded and will be able to perform its job of removing those drops […]

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Two Phase Separator Settling Time

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Two Phase Separator Settling Time

In the gravity settling section the liquid drops will settle at a velocity determined by equating the gravity force on the drop with the drag force caused by its motion relative to the gas continuous phase. The drag force is determined from the equation: where FD = drag force, Ib CD = drag coefficient A […]

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Heat Exchanger Tube Pitch

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Heat Exchanger Tube Pitch

Tube holes cannot be drilled very close together, since this may structually weaken the tube sheet. The shortest distance between two adjacent tube holes is called the “clearance.” Tubes are laid out in either square or triangular patterns as shown in Figure 3-5. The advantage of square pitch is that the tubes are accessible for […]

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Heat Exchanger Tubes

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Heat Exchanger Tubes

Heat-exchanger tubes should not be confused with steel pipe or other types of pipe that are extruded to steel pipe sizes. The outside diameter of heat-exchanger tubes is the actual outside diameter in inches within a very strict tolerance. Heat-exchanger tubes are available in a variety of metals including steel, copper, brass, 70-30 copper-nickel, aluminum […]

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Heat Exchanger Baffles

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Heat Exchanger Baffles

Shell-and-tube exchangers contain several types of baffles to help direct the flow of both tube-side and shell-side fluids. Pass partition baffles force the fluid to flow through several groups of parallel tubes. Each of these groups of tubes is called a “pass,” since it passes the fluid from one head to another. By adding pass […]

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Shell and Tube Exchangers

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Shell and Tube Exchangers

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are cylindrical in shape, consisting of a bundle of parallel tubes surrounded by an outer casing (shell). Both the tube bundle and the shell are designed as pressure containing elements in accordance with the pressure and temperature requirements of the fluids that flow through each of them. The tube-side fluid is isolated […]

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