Author: Jack

Inspection of Spheres

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In general, the practices that apply to pressure vessels also apply to spheres although the techniques may vary. The tall legs necessary to support spheres should be carefully inspected to determine the condition of the fireproofing and the rain seals. Remove cracked or spalled fireproofing and inspect the exposed steel. Earthquake or sway bracing must […]

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Reactors External Inspection

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1. Nozzles Visually inspect gasket faces if opened, ORJ gaskets and bolting material. On vessels with pressure sealed gaskets check for distortion, corrosion, and cleanliness. 2. Shell a. Obtain UT thickness measurements at representative locations on shell and heads. b. For Isomax reactors, ultrasonically shear wave top and bottom heads, headto-nozzle welds, head-to-shell welds, nozzles, […]

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Reactors Internal Inspection

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1. Inspection Ports Obtain measurements at corrosion reference points on reactor shell. Inspect for corrosion or scale at these locations. Loose scale on the bottom head is probably a combination of scale and catalyst. This scale can cause corrosion and must be removed. 2. Basket Tray Inspect for basket screen deterioration and plugging. Report percentages […]

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Pressure Vessels Inspection

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1. External Corrosion Horizontal drums resting on concrete support saddles frequently corrode externally in the area of the saddle. Inspect the water seal at the edge of the concrete If evidence of corrosion exists, it might be advisable to lift the vessel off the support or cut away the concrete for more complete inspection. Look […]

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Distillation Columns Internal Inspection

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1. Safety Entry of a column can be made only after the approved, signed entry tags are in place on the column. Safety rules in effect at the vessel must be observed. Inspectors must not work alone in vessels but always in pairs to provide maximum safety. Do not attempt an internal inspection until the […]

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Distillation Columns External Inspection Prior to Entry

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1. Support and Foundations Distillation columns are usually supported by a cylindrical skirt which usually s fireproofed inside and outside with concrete, brick, or other insulating material. Inspect the fireproofing material carefully for evidence of cracking, spalling, or defective seal at the top edge. Water which penetrates the insulation can cause severe corrosion of the […]

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Acoustic Emission Testing – Data Analysis

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Acoustic Emission Testing – Data Analysis

The data obtained from an acoustic emission test of a pressure vessel are analyzed to determine the existence of flaws and their locations in the shell of the vessel. Accurate analysis of the data is highly dependent upon the expertise of the vendor performing the test. Only those vendors that can demonstrate that they have […]

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Acoustic Emission Testing – Acoustic Sensors and Instrumentation

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Most acoustic sensors used for acoustic emission testing of pressure vessels employ piezoelectric ceramic elements that convert the stress waves (i.e., acoustic emissions) propagating through the vessel shell into electrical impulses. These sensors are usually attached to the vessel shell with magnets or an epoxy glue. Several sensors are positioned on the shell in a […]

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Acoustic Emission Testing – Test Pressure

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Acoustic emission tests of a pressure vessel are usually conducted by filling the vessel with water, and slowly increasing the hydrostatic pressure until it exceeds the maximum pressure that the vessel has experienced during recent operation. Early development of acoustic emission testing showed that significant acoustic emissions are not observed until the recent maximum operating […]

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