Internal Appurtenances Loads
For both vertical and horizontal vessels, internal appurtenances create loads that are directly applied to the vessel shell. These design concerns are best handled by the vessel designer, with input from engineers familiar with the process technology. (See below for examples.) For vertical vessels, trays are typically used to support catalyst or bubble caps. These are typically horizontal projections in a stream of fluid or gas that is running vertically. These loads are usually transferred back to the vessel shell. Typical loads may come from catalyst deadweight, pressure drop from gas flow, and change in momentum of fluids.
Horizontal vessels may contain vertical plates for support of exchanger tubes, or baffle plates in knockout drums. These items are usually attached to the shell, and the local effects of bending moments or shears must be considered in the design of the shell.
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