Reinforcement of Openings for External Pressure

The cross-sectional area (A) of reinforcement required for openings in vessels
subject to external pressure:

d = Diameter in the given plane of the opening in its corroded condition, inches
tr = Wall thickness required for external pressure, inches
F = Factor for computation of the required reinforcement area on different planes (as the pressure-stress varies) when the opening is in cylindrical shell or cone and integrally reinforced. For all other configurations the value of F = 1.

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