Design for Internal Pressure
Figure 400-4 gives equations for various components under internal pressure. Internal or external pressure produces a longitudinal-seam stress that is two times larger than that on the circumferential seams. For this reason the equations are shown only for longitudinal seams. However, if widely varying joint efficiencies for the circumferential and longitudinal seams are chosen, or other stresses, such as structural stresses, come into play, then the circumferential seam may govern. This circumstance should be checked individually for each vessel under consideration. For thick wall vessels where the wall thickness exceeds one half of the inside radius, or P exceeds 0.385 SE (S and E are defined in Figure 400-4), the equations given by Code Appendices 1 and 2 should be applied.
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