Shell-to-Hemispherical Head Junction Discontinuity Stresses

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A hemispherical head is almost always thinner than a cylindrical shell, and, therefore, a structural discontinuity exists at the junction of the head with the shell. This discontinuity stress is negligible, however, when tapered transitions are used. Discontinuity stresses at a hemispherical head-to-shell junction are lower than at the junction of the shell with any other type of closure. This is an important factor in selecting a hemispherical head for a large diameter vessel subjected to high operating temperatures and high internal pressures.

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