## Shell-to-Cone Junction Without Knuckle Discontinuity Stress

The thickness of a conical head or sections under internal pressure, with a half-apex angle smaller than 30°, is calculated by simple ASME Code membrane-stress equations and the ASME Code rules for reinforcement at the junction. No special analysis of discontinuity stresses is normally required. When, in addition to internal pressure, there are external loads, or when the half-apex angle is larger than 30°, a more detailed analysis of discontinuity stresses is necessary. This analysis can be made by using the Force Method, but as the equations for this case are more complicated, simplified approximate solutions are available in Reference 2. (See the reference section of this manual.) The computer program described above in Section 142 can also be used.

The discontinuity stress can be further increased by a poor fit-up of the joint. Good alignment of a cone with a cylinder is difficult to achieve in practice.

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